In this article, along with Razeto’s concept of “simple labor time,” the framework provides some welcome intellectual tools for thinking about fairness and efficiency in cooperative enterprises. Razeto introduces a four-fold classification system for factors of production, with each being either “internal” or “external” to the co-op, and either “human” or “objectified” in nature. One of the most rigorous applications of Marxist theories of coops we have ever seen.

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Source: Socialistplanningbeyondcapitalism.org